Emerging Pollutants in Wetlands of Bihar
Image Credit: World Bank Blog
Wetlands in Bihar are facing many environmental problems like overfishing, encroachment, arsenic pollution and administrative apathy. Several steps has been taken to conserve the water bodies in Bihar like banning construction within a stripe of land covering 200 meters of any water body.
Wetlands constitute a cost-effective wastewater treatment alternative for small communities due to the low operational cost, reduced energy consumption, and reduced sewage sludge production. Although much information is available about conventional water quality parameters in CWs, few data exist regarding emerging pollutants. In this chapter, following a short introduction on the different wetland configurations, the removal efficiency for anti-inflammatory drugs, lipid regulators, anti-epileptic agents, fragrance materials, surfactants, and estrogens in different wetland systems is discussed. Among the parameters affecting wetland performance, it is shown that removal efficiency of a variety of emerging pollutants is dependent on the oxygen availability and sorption interactions. For that reason the vertical flow constructed wetlands exhibited the best performance in terms of hydraulic residence time and removal efficiency.